The Conclusion and review on Morphology
1. Morphology is the study of morphemes and combination of morphemes to form-word.
2. A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. And A morpheme will be called “Zero”
3. 2 Kinds of morpheme : Free morpheme and Bound morpheme
4. Free morphemes are those that can occur alone.
5. Bound morphemes are those that can’t occur alone, they must be attached to some words.
6. There are 4 methods of word-formation : Affixation, conversion, compounding and other kinds (reduplication, clipping, blending and acronym)
7. Affixation: It is the process of adding an affix to base word : drive ----- -er = driver.
8. Conversion: It is the process of assigning the base to a different word -class.
For example : Love ---> Love / Walk --> walk.
9. Compounding: It is the process of adding one base to another or A compound is a unit consisting of two or more bases: Tea+ pot = teapot.
10. Reduplication – Some compounds have two or more element which are either identical for only slightly different : Goody – Goody (Read more detail in the textbook (If you don’t understand)).
11. Clipping denotes the subtraction of one or more syllables from a word. : Telephone cut “TELE” become 1 word : PHONE.
12.Blending : in the blend, at least one of the elements is fragmentary when compared with its corresponding uncompounded word form . For example The term “brunch” is derived from br (eakfast) + ….. (L) unch.
13.Acronym are words formed the initial letter of words. New acronym are freely produced, especially for names of organizations or company. For example = C.o.d. = Cash on deliver
14.Affixes can be divided into two kinds : The inflectional affixes and derivational affixes.
15.The inflectional affixes are those that do not change words from one word-class for example ..Countable (Adj.) -> Uncountable(Adj.)
16.The derivational affixes are those that change word form one word or subclass to another. For example , Good (Adjective)------> Goodness (Noun)
17.Prefixes are those that have to be added at the beginning of word.
18.Suffixes are those that have to be added at the end of word.
19.Matrix sentence is one of underlying sentences, in a double- base transformation into which structure created by changing the other sentence is inserted to create a transform.
1. Syntax is the branch of grammar which is concerned with the study of arrangement of words in sentences and of the mean by which such relationships are shown.
2. 2 Kinds of Syntax …….Kernel sentences (rewrite rule) and transformed sentences (T.Affix / T.do / T.wh)
3. Kernel sentences are those fundamental which all other kinds of sentences are derived from: The boy is good.
4. Transformed sentences are those that are derived with the help of the well-formed kernel sentence by applying the rule of transformation. : The good boy is there.
5. T. affix is obligatory and applied after all other transformation:
for example : Af. (tense/particle/-ing) V. (M/have/be/verb)
A sentence : John is going
Is the string : John+present+be+ing+go
By T.af : John+be+present+go+ing
Phonological rule : John is coimg.
6. T.do = X + tense + y >>>> X + tense + do + y
A sentence : He takes a pen.
Is the string : He + tense + take + a pen.
T.negative : He + tense + not + take + a pen.
By T.do : He + tense + do + not + take + a pen.
By T.af : He + do + tense + not + take + a pen.
Phonological rule : He does not take a pen.
7. T. Yes/No question
For example :
Sentence : John may go.
Base string : John + tense + may + go
T. yes/No : Tense + may + John + go
Phonological rule : May John go?
8. T.wh question
For Example :
A sentence : He is there
T. yes/no Question: Is he there
T.wh question : where is he?.